All types of surgical reconstruction are carried out by the Toronto Team. These include:
These procedures may be static to provide support and control position or dynamic to provide active movement. The most common dynamic procedures provide eye closure and smile reconstruction. For smile reconstruction, nerve grafts and functioning micro neurovascular muscle transfers play a prominent role and it is here that microsurgery has contributed enormously. Several surgical articles have been written by the surgeons of The Toronto Facial Paralysis Group which explain the surgery and demonstrate its effects. These are appended in the publications section of this website.